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Golden Age of Indian Cinema

In India the independence, the time of the 1944er up to end 1960 the years are considered as filmhistorikern the "golden rule era" of Indian cinema.some of most powerful all Indian films have been produced currently in course of this period. This period provided for the creation of a new parallel Cinema movement, and especially of bengali cinema. early examples of films in this movement, chetan Anand neecha nagar (1946) ,  ritwik ghatak's nagarik (1952) , and Bimal Roy's do bigha zameen (1953), lays the foundations of Indians neorealismus and of the "New Wave Indian". pather panchali (1955), the first part of the trilogy APU (1955- 1959) of Satyajit Ray, there must be an entry in the Indian cinema. The trilogy APU important price received at all the major International Film Festival, and has led to the "parallel Cinema" movement the anchor in the Indian cinema. The influence that it focuses on World Cinema also in the "young coming-of-age drama, under water Arts houses since the mid-fifties", the "a huge debt to the APU trilogy”.  The cameraman subrata howlader Mitra, of its launch with Satyajit Ray's APU folder, has had a considerable impact on the cinema in the world. One of its main techniques has been bounce lighting, to the effect of light of the day. He has provided his pioneering work in the field of the technique during the dreharbeiten aparajito (1956), the second part of the APU trilogy.  Some of the experimental techniques, the pioneering work of the Satyajit Ray include photo-rückblenden and negative X-RAY your during the dreharbeiten pratidwandi (1972).  Ray in 1967 script for a film and the name of "Alien, which was finally abandoned, is also very widespread, that the inspiration for Steven spiel bergs E. T. (1982). Satyajit Ray and ritwik ghatak has decreased by much higher they "artistic", films and they have been recognized by other Indian follow independent filmmaker as for example mrinal.SEN, Indian cinema multiple-INSTITUTION adoor Gopalakrishnan, mani case and buddhadeb dasgupta.  in 1960, Madam Gandhi's intervention in the course of their domination, information and Broadcasting Minister of India will be allowed to continue until the production of the off-beat cinematographic works expression is supported by the film Finance Corporation official.


Commercial Cinema Hindi has started well, with films are examples of the time of the part of films pyaasa Dutt preferred (1957) and kaagaz KE phool (1959) and movies kapoor raj awaara (1951) and shree 420 (1955).  These films expressed on social themes, especially, with working class deficit live in India; awaara will represent the city as a nightmare and a dream, whereas pyaasa rezensiert the unwirklichkeit cities.  Some epistle films were also on the date manufactured, including mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), who has been appointed to the Academy Award" for the best film languages  and K. asif, Mughal-e-Azam (1960) . V. shantaram do aankhen before you gene to Beth-vain haath (1957) is adopted, that the Hollywood film - the ten (1967).  Madhumati (1958), governed: bimal Roy and writing of ritwik ghatak, popular has been the theme of reincarnation in the west dear culture. Other main Hindi filmmaker at the time Kamal amrohi and Vijay bhatt.

Since chetan Anand social realistic film neecha nagar has won the grand prize of the first Cannes Film Festival, Indian films were often in competition to the golden rule a for e Cannes Festival for almost every year in 1950 and early 1960 years, with a number of them earn of Salzburg in. Satyajit Ray has also won the golden age of Louvain the Venice Film Festival for aparajito (1956), the second part of the APU trilogy, and to the golden rule and two bears printing for the best staging of the e international Festival of Berlin. Ray's contemporaries, and ritwik ghatak Dutt preferred, has been neglected in their own lives, but delay creates an international recognition much later in 1980 and 1990. Ray is seen as one of the major authors of the 20th century" with Dutt and ghatak. In 1992, the sight & Sound critics' poll ranked Ray to no. 7 of the list of the top 10 directors" of all time, then Dutt was in place no. 73 in 2002 sight & Sound great stage directors Poll.

The number of films Indians of different regions, of this period is often among the most major films all the time different opponents" and directors' is questioned. At this stage, and the Tamil telugu Cinema Cinema have known their Golden Age and during this time the production of indian folklore, fantasy and mythologischen films as mayabazar, listed after Ibn Live's 2013 survey the largest Indian film all the time" and narthanasala grew up. A number of movies Satyajit Ray appeared in the sight & Sound critics' poll, including the folder APU (rank 4 in 1992, if votes can be combined) , music in the rooms (location #27 in 1992 ), charulata (place no. 41) in 1992 and the days and nights in the forest (of rank 81 in 1982) . 2002 sight & Sound critics' directors' poll and also of movies preferred Dutt pyaasa and kaagaz KE phool (both committed to 160), by films ritwik ghatak meghe Dhaka Tara (no. 231) and Komal Publishing house gandhar (rank by 346), and raj kapoor 's awaara, Vijay bhatt the baiju bawra, mehboob Khan's Mother India and K. asif, Mughal-e-Azam all committed to # 346; in 1998, these critical investigation of the cinemaya Asian film magazine containing the folder APU (rank 1 if votes can be combined), Ray's charulata and the music in the rooms (the two engaged by 11), ghatak's subarnarekha (also committed to 11 BY) . (79) In 1999, the village Voice top 250 "Best Film of the century" kritikerumfrage was also the folder APU (rank 5 votes can be combined). In 2005, an APU folder and pyaasa, but also of Time magazine's "All-time" 100 best films list.

Indian Cinema modern

Some filmmaker as benegal and more realistic for the parallel production Cinema in 1970,  Addition Satyajit Ray, ritwik ghatak, Mrinal SEN, buddhadeb Dasgupta and gautam ghose in bengali cinema, Indian cinema multiple-INSTITUTION adoor Gopalakrishnan, shaji N. karun rivers", John Abraham and G. aravindan to malayalam Cinema, nirad Mohapatra oriya CINEMA, K. N. T. Sastry and B. narsing RAO in Telugu Cinema; case and mani , shahani Naidu, Ketan Mehta, Govind nihalani and vijaya Mehta in Hindi cinema.  However, the "nature film" elsewhere the film Finance Corporation has, to the critic in a committee for public enterprises survey in 1976 has raised the body is not enough to do for the rooms of commercial cinema.


Of 1970 years has done, but they are under the increase of movie theaters sustainable commercial in the form of films like sholay (1975), the solidified waste Amitabh Bachchan's position as to play a role.  The pious Classic JAI santoshi notified has also been in 1975 . Another film from 1975, was deewar, staging: Yash Chopra and written by Salim-Javed. A crime film for "an officer against his brother, leader of a course on the basis of Real-Life MARKS OF THE mastan", presented by Amitabh Bachchan, it was described as an "absolutely essential to the Indian cinema" of sentence Boyle. 1979 telugu film, sankarabharanam, which is is of the revival of the Indian classical music, has the price to the community of Besancon film Festival in France in 1981.  1987 kannada film, tabarana käthe, poor governance, was held at various festivals such as Tashkent, Nantes, Tokyo, and the film Festival in Russia.


Long after the golden age of Indian cinema, South India's malayalam Cinema Kerala is considered as one of the best Indian film genres lived their own "golden era" in 1980 and early 1990 years. Some of the main Indian products filmmaker at the time of the industry Malayalam, between other multiple Indian cinema-INSTITUTION adoor gopalakrishnan g. aravindan, T. V. and Chandran shaji N. karun rivers". Indian cinema Multiple-adoor gopalakrishnan Institution, is often the fact that Satyajit Ray the clergy heirs, is directed some of his major films of this period, including elippathayam (1981) won the Sutherland "on the London Film Festival, as mathilukal (1989) The important for the price will be Festival of Venice.


Shaji N. karun rivers' early film piravi (1989) has won the Camera d'or at the em 1989 Cannes Film Festival, while its second film swaham (1994) has been in competition for the golden rule a gold 1994 in Cannes Film Festival. malayalam Cinema economic has started that this is more, thanks to the action of films jayan, a parliamentarian actors expensive, whose success has been of short duration, it is deceased during the dreharbeiten stunts a dangerous helicopters, followed by mohanlal, whose film "yodha was known for its actionsequenzen and the technical aspects.


More commercial Hindi Cinema is increased in the 1980 and 1990 years ago with the publication of films like EK duuje KE liye (1981) Mr. India (1987), qayamat se qayamat tak (1988), tezaab (1988), chandni (1989), Maine of pyar (1989), baazigar (1993), ai (1993) , dilwale dulhaniya the jayenge (1995) and Kush Kush Hai (1998), including a large number of a Michelin-Stern excellent sridevi, one Shahrukh Khan, Aamir Khan and Salman Khan.


At the end of 1990 years, "parallel Cinema" has begun once more in Hindi Cinema, especially by the critical and commercial success of Satya (1998), a small film budget on the basis of its Mumbai, staging: Ram gopal Varma stay and written by anurag kashyap. The film has been a success that the emergence of a standalone kind known as Bombay black, Urban films reflect the social problems in the city Mumbai. Later films are among the Mumbai black kind: madhur bhandarkar Dr. Microprocessor on the chandni Bar (2001) and transport (2007), RAM gopal Varma remain in the enterprise (2002) as well as his predecessor D (2005), of anurag kashyap of Black Friday (2004), rahul dholakia's "parzania", Kamal is same thanks Maa (2009), and Deva katta's prasthanam (2010).


Other type film directors actively today, Mrinal SEN, me shaani, buddhadeb Dasgupta, gautam Ghose, sandip Ray, managerin aparna SEN, rituparno Ghosh in bengali cinema, Indian cinema multiple-INSTITUTION adoor Gopalakrishnan, shaji N. karun rivers", it santosh Sivan and T. V. chandran of Malayalam Cinema, nirad Mohapatra oriya CINEMA; case mani , shahani Naidu, Ketan Mehta, Govind nihalani, and benegal, Mira Madrid, nagesh kukunoor, Sudhir worked for the nandita and regisseurinnen in Hindi cinema; mani ratnam in Tamil Cinema, pattabhirami reddy, K. N. T. Sastry, B. narsing RAO akkineni and kutumba RAO in Telugu Cinema. Deepa Mehta, fifty Balani, homi adajania, Vijay Singh and sooni taraporevala HAS recognition in the Indian cinema British.


There is in general six having been key influences, the convention of Indian cinema popular. The first is the old epen Indian Mahabharata and Ramayana, which have exercised a decisive influence on the thought and the Indian cinema popular, especially in his dramas. Examples to this effect, the techniques of a side story, history and the act in a history. Movies Indians are often plots, we sub-framework, as more narrative sees many films 1993 khalnayak and gardish.


The second influence, the impact of the former European drama, with its nature appears high and the axis of spectacle of music, dance and geared handset "to create an artistic unit with lively dance and pantomime a central role in the dramatic experience." European tragedies have been known as Natya, a derivative of the word tirl (dance), characterized as a spectacular dance-dramas in Indian cinema. Rasa the nature of the benefit, to a very old European drama, is one of the essential characteristics distinguish, Indian cinema that that the western world. Rasa of method, has "emotions gives performers and if it was by the public", unlike the method stanislawski western, in the actors must be "a living, which incarnation of a character", and not as "simply convey the emotions." Rasa Nature of the benefit is clearly in the ideas of the popular Hindi film actors like Amitabh Bachchan , one Shahrukh Khan, national structure Hindi films as rank FR basanti (2006) , and international renowned bengali films of Satyajit Ray.


The third influence was the traditional popular music theater of India; the popular was of the 10th century with the collapse of the European theater. These regional traditions, the yatra OF RESEARCH west, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, of yakshagana in Karnataka, "chindu natakam" of Andhra Pradesh, and the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu. The fourth influence was parsisch theater, the "mixed reality and imagination, music and dance, show and placed, materials dialog and creativity of bühnenpräsentation, by integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrams. The Parsi played the derben humor, melodiöse songs and music , i and summer künstlerkollegen. " All of these influences are clearly in the masala film genre, has of manmohan Desai's Films in the 1970s and early 1980 years, in particular in kuli (1983), and in a way in the last few opponents had films rank FR basanti.


The fifth influence in Hollywood or musicals popular products from the 1920er to 1950 years, but also Indian filmmaker has means of his colleagues of Hollywood, but several types. "For example, the Hollywood musicals had of their act the world of maintenance. Indian filmmaker, while improving the elements of fantasy is ubiquitous in films Indians unpopular, songs and music as any physical person type of the articulation in a given situation in his films. There is a Indian tradition of the strong erzählens mythology, history, stories and fairy tale so on by dance and song." In addition, "the Hollywood filmmaker have endeavored constructed conceal the nature of the work in such a way that the erzählens realistic was totally dominant, the Indian filmmaker is not an attempt to hide that, to the screen which was presented a establishment, an illusion, a fiction.


However, you have shown, as this creation WITH THE COUPAGE persons the day by day life complex and interesting possibilities. "The last influence was Western musical TV, especially MTV, which has a growth influence since the 1990 years, speed, the kamerawinkel, dance and music in the past ocean films. An early example of this approach was in mani ratnam's Bombay (1995) .


As major Indian Popular Cinema, India has also been in parallel Cinema influenced also by a combination of Indian theater (in particular European drama) and Indian literary (especially literary bengalische), is distinguished but when it is, foreign influences, which are more of the European cinema INFLUENCE (mainly French and Italian neorealismus was realism) rather than Hollywood. Satyajit Ray quoted Italian director Vittorio De Sica 's cyclists FLIGHT (1948) and French filmmaker Jean Renoir, the river (1951), he contends, as influences on the launch pather panchali (1955).  In addition to the influence of European cinema and BANGLADESH literary, Ray is also responsible for the ocean theatertradition, in particular the method Rasa the drama classic European. The lesson of Rasa complex "centers especially known to his feeling is not only by the figures, but also of a certain track artistic in the viewers. The duality of this type of Rasa nesting" shows in the luftaufbereitungseinheit APU trilogy. bimal Roy's tomorrow two countries (1953) has also been marked by "S cyclists SICA thieves and once again opened the way for the Indian New Wave, which began at about the same time that the new French French and the Japanese New Wave. Ray known as being one of the main influences in parallel Cinema, has been presented as figure autorenfilmer (want).  At the heart of most of his stories of the lower middle class and of the unemployed (want).  It has not been until the end of 1960 that in parallel Cinema media has registered an increase (you want to).

Some movies Indians called "Multilingualism" which has been screws in the same but are not identical versions in different languages. This has been done in the 1930 er. After rajadhyaksha and willemen in the it of Indian Cinema (1994), most of the precise form, a multilingual,


    A bilingual or trilingual  was the type of film, in the 1930 er in the studio ERA if different, but all of suite, it is of any ball in different languages, often with different leaders stars but identical technical crew and the music.

Rajadhyaksha and willemen Please note that the search for the construction of its encclopedia, there has been that they often have it "very difficult to distinguish multilingualism in this initial direction to synchronfassungen, remakes and such or, in some cases, the same film in the list of the various titles, such as the separation of versions in different languages It is still lasts for years of scientific work to put in place the final data in this regard


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